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Socionics – a science of psychological types of people and their relationships PDF Печать E-mail

Prokofieva Tatyana Nikolaevna
PhD in the sphere of socionics
General Director of the Socionics Scientific Research Institute

Review lecture

People have always dreamed of living in good relationships with other people and understand others. Wanted to see benevolence everywhere and be benevolent themselves. “Everyone wanted but few succeeded”, - wrote Aushra Augustinavichuite, a Lithuanian scientist, pedagogue and economist.

Socionics appeared in the 70-ies of the XX century at the interfaces between three sciences: psychology, sociology and informatics.

  • Psychology is a science of a human psyche. Z. Freud’s theory of a human psyche and C.G. Jung’s Psychological types theory has served as the basis for creating socionics.
  • Sociology is a science of a human society. It is important for socionics to study the interrelations between people in the society and also to study the structure of the human society itself.
  • Informatics is a science of information exchange, processing and transferring. Socionics studies not the psyche on the whole but the human psyche functioning in the information processing. For this purpose socionics use mathematic modeling of information processing and transfer by the human psyche.

Socionics is a science of information metabolism types and intertype relations between them.

The subject of socionics is the study of information exchange between a person and external and internal world and also between people as information metabolism types.

Socionics method is diagnostics of a human psyche structure and the analysis of information metabolism processes according to socionics models.

Socionics has appeared as a logical sequel of the theories by Z.Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis and the Swiss psychiatrists C.G. Jung. The short description of the socionics basis can sound like that. Freud has brought in the science the idea that a human psyche has its structure. He described this structure as follows: conscious (ego), preconscious (super-ego) and subconscious (id). Basing on his experience with patients Jung noticed that such structures have different filling with different people. Jung classified the stable, possibly inherent, differences in behaviour, abilities, susceptibility to illnesses, peculiarities in appearances. Studying all these specific features Jung has constructed not one, as Freud had done, but eight, psyche models and described on their basis eight psychological types.

C.G. Jung constructed his typology on the basis of two tendencies:

extraversion - introversion

and four functions

thinking, feeling, intuition, sensation

Jung examined each of the four psychological functions in two tendencies: in extraverted and introverted variants. He defined eight psychological types in accordance with these eight functions. He stated: “both extraverted and introverted types can be thinking, or feeling, or intuitive, or sensing”. Jung gave the detailed descriptions of the types in his book “Psychological Types”.

Extraversion and introversion were the first tendencies of human psyche that were described.

Extraversion is to certain extent turning one’s interest outside, from a subject to an object” (C.G. Jung).

Introversion, according to Jung, is turning one’s interest inside when “the motivating force belongs first of all to a subject, while an object has at most the secondary meaning”.

Jung stated that there are neither pure extraverts, nor introverts in the world, but every individual is more inclined to one of these tendencies and acts mostly in its frames. “Every person has common mechanisms, extraversion and introversion, but the type is defined by a relative domination of one of them”.

Differences between extraverts and introverts

 

Extraversion

Introversion

Direction

To the outer world

To the inner world

C ommunication

Pay attention to themselves and others

Wait to be noticed

Behaviour

Is determined by the outer situation

Is determined by their own tendencies

Speech

Oral speech is easier

Written speech is easier

Dynamics

Feel easy to change a place, to find new friends

Keep previous relationships, gatherings

The terms extraversion and introversion should not be identified with the level of communication or keeping oneself to oneself. As could be seen in the definitions given by Jung himself, communicability and unsociability in these categories are far from being the main things. Communicability can be based either on the interest to other people (extraverted) or the interest to useful and attractive information for the person (introverted). There are extraverted people preferring to watch objects from a distance. And, vice versa, an introvert can be very sociable thus making the inner comfort for himself.

Next Jung described four psychological functions. He wrote: “I was asked, even with a reproach, why I speak about exactly four functions, no more, no less. First, their number appeared just empirically. But the fact that they gave a certain degree of integrity can be proved by the following idea. Sensation states what is going on in fact. Thinking lets us learn what it means. Feeling shows its value. And, finally, intuition directs at possible “where from” and “where”, existing in present. Due to that the orientation in the modern world can be as full as determining a place in an area with the help of geographic coordinates”. [1].

Sensation

What in fact is going on?

Thinking

What does it mean?

Feeling

What is its value?

Intuition

Where from? Where?

Working with patients gave Jung the grounds to say that one people are better with logical information (reasoning, conclusions, proofs) while others – with the emotional one (people’s relations, their feelings). One have more developed intuition (anticipation, perception on the whole, instinctive grasp of the information), and others – with more developed sensations (perception of inner and outer irritants).

According to Jung’s definition:

Thinking is the psychological function that creates a categorical connection between the data of the gist of the ideas. Thinking is occupied with the truth and based on the non-personal, logic, objective criteria.

Feeling is a function that gives the matter a certain value in the sense of its acceptance or rejection. Feeling is based on the estimating judging: good – bad, beautiful – not beautiful.

Intuition is the psychological function that gives the subject unconscious perception. Intuition is a kind of instinctive grasp, its reliability is based on certain psychic capacities existence and implementation of which however remain unconscious.

Sensation is the psychological function that perceives the physical irritation. Sensation is based on the straight experience of perceiving exact facts.

Every person has all the four psychological functions. But these functions are developed to different extent. Usually one of the functions dominates giving a person real means to reach the social success. Other functions are inevitably behind which is not pathology at all but their “backwardness” can be seen only if compared to the dominant function.

“As the experience shows, the main psychological functions are rarely or almost never of the same strength or the same level of development with one and the same individual. Usually, one or another function is stronger or more developed”.

If a person’s thinking is at one and the same level with feeling, then, as Jung wrote, we can talk “about a relatively undeveloped thinking and feeling. Equal consciousness and unconsciousness of the functions is thus a sign of the primitive state of the spirit”.

Differences between logics and ethics

 

Logics (thinking)

Ethics (feeling)

The way of thinking

Analytical, impartial

Estimating, involved

Style

Rationality, proof

Emotionality, persuasion

Activity leading to success

Organizing processes, structures, working out patterns and technologies

Working with people, images, emotions, people’s relationships

Estimating people in work

According to their qualifications, to their results

According to their participation, to their effort

Orientation for

Business , justice , laws

People, humanness, values

 

Differences between intuits and sensorics

 

Intuition

Sensorics (sensing)

The character of perception

Global

Local

Finds his way better in

Time

Space

The way of thinking

Abstract, theoretical

Exact, practical

Life credo

We’ll live and see

Here and now

Effectiveness

In something unusual, strange

In something that is checked and reliable

 

Jung has divided all the psychological functions to two classes: rational (thinking and feeling) and irrational (intuition and sensation).

Rational is logical, reasonable, tied with intellect and corresponding to it”.

Jung took intellect as the orientation for the standards and objective values accumulated in society.

Irrational , according to Jung, are not something illogical, but existing beyond it, not based on it.

Thus, for example, taste is a personal matter for every person. The taste is not oriented for social standards. So are the intuitive insights. These categories are not either logical (according to Jung) or illogical. They are not based on mind and exist beyond it.

Differences between rationals and irrationals

 

Rationality

Irrationality

Planning

Prefers to have an opportunity to plan his work and act according to the plan

Better adapts to changing situations, corrects his plan according to the situation

Decision making

Is aimed at making a decision beforehand at each stage. Keeps this taken decision.

Forms interim decisions, corrects them in the course of performance

S equence of operations

Does all the work step by step, rhythmically and steadily

Likes to do a few things at once, parallel but in changing rhythm

Life credo

Tries to secure stability, predictable future

Better adapts in a changing world, uses new opportunities

The total of these four pairs of features form Jung’s basis on which the socionic theory stands.

Two tendencies:

Extraversion - introversion

:

Four functions:

Sensing - intuition

 

Thinking - feeling

Two classes:

Rationality - irrationality

Jung wrote: “I cannot absolutely give the a priori grounds for such division as the main one, but can only stress that such understanding is based on many years of experience”.

Jung picked out one, the strongest and clearly seen function for every psychological type, called it dominant and named the type in accordance with this function. For better understanding of Jung’s typology we will show all the 8 types in a form of a table (table 1).

Psychological Types by C.G. Jung

 

Rationality

Irrationality

Extraversion

Extraverted thinking type

Extraverted feeling type

ощущающий тип

Extraverted sensing type

Extraverted intuitive type

Introversion

Introverted thinking type

Introverted feeling type

Introverted sensing type

Introverted intuitive type

Everyone can be described in the terms of Jung’s psychological types. “Two people see one and the same object, but the pictures they see are not quite identical. Besides the differences in organs of senses pungency and personal equation, we can often observe the fundamental differences in the kind and volume of psychic assimilation of a perceived image”, - Jung wrote.

The type shows relatively strong and relatively weak places in the psyche functioning and the activity style preferable for a person. But that does not at all mean that the type limits the person’s activities. Each of us is free to choose whether to take the sphere where the good results can be reached easier or for some reason to take a more complicated sphere.

How socionics appeared

Aushra Augustinivichuite has combined the Jung’s theory of psychological types with the theory of information metabolism by A. Kempinsky.

Metabolism means: exchange, processing.

A. Kempinsky, a classic of the Polish psychiatry, has compared the process of information exchange by the human psyche to the human body metabolism. He introduced the image: “Human psyche feeds on information. His psychic health depends on the quality and quantity of this information”.

This comparison became possible only in the middle of the XX-th century when due to Wiener, the author of cybernetics, information became the subject of a scientific interest (in the 40-s). Then it became possible to talk about information processing by the human psyche. It became clear that the psyche structure studied by Jung is informational. Jung, being ahead of his time got, as A. Augustinavichuite put it, into the sphere of “unidentified objects” watching the work of information processing system. Its description, and not the description of the whole detailed human psyche, is the core of the socionic typology.

So, on the basis of Jung’s and Kempinsky’s theories, A. Augustinavichuite managed to show that psychological types are just different ways of information metabolism. That’s why personality types in socionics are called types of information metabolism.

Types of information metabolism

Socionics studies not a personality on the whole, but only its information structure – the preferable type or the way of information exchange. Upbringing, education, culture level, life experience, character – the things that are individual, unique in a person – are not the subject of the basic socionics, it’s the sphere of individual psychology.

Information metabolism type is an ideal category reminding of a category of an ideal liquid in physics. Ideal liquid, certainly, does not exist anywhere in the nature, it’s only a model. But without such a very simplified model there is no way to get to the study of a real liquid with a touch of different substances, viscosity and other complicated features. Thus, for a reliable study of human psyche socionics proposes to put the research on the information base, to rely on a model. And then, on the base of this model, we can get to the peculiarities of an alive, real person. This will allow to get to the personality analysis using the exact criteria.

One more important thing. A personality type should not be considered as “something stark”, limiting his “personal growth”. Socionic type is the informational personality structure, not interfering with the person’s development and entering new kinds of activities. When we are self-perfectioning, we do not need to change our “informational skeleton”, our structure. For comparison: shaping classes for our figure improvement do not demand our filing ribs or breaking bones. Being born either a male or a female, left-handed or right-handed, we also have from the nature a certain personality structure with the specific strength and weaknesses, which in their interconnection from not the only ideal of a human psychological norm, but different kinds of norms according to the number of socionic personality types.

That’s why it is important to know one’s type making decision about choosing one’s profession. What is the chance to succeed in the interesting sphere? Will it be easy or difficult to get all the necessary knowledge and skills? Will it bring joy and satisfaction? How much time and psychic energy will it take? The skill to be sure in such matters helps to be confident in one’s life.

Finding out the person’s preferences on each of the four pairs of dichotomies, we can identify his psychological type.

It is necessary to warn people against the seeming simplicity of type identification. This is caused by the great volume of the tasks to solve, the necessity to pick out the psyche structure of the background of accumulated or worked out from the early childhood habits, stereotypes, problems etc., multiplied for the present emotional state of the person. Professional diagnostics usually takes from 40 minutes to 1,5 hours of hard work and includes repeated testing by additional features (Reinin dichotomies, small groups), by model, by intertype relations.

Socionic functions

Following Jung Aushra Augustinavichuite took the functions in extraverted and introverted variants and divided them into classes: rational and irrational. On the base of her observations she found the exact names for each function.

Jung described psychological functions:

thinking

feeling

intuition

sensing

In socionics they got the names:

Logics

 

Ethics

Intuition

Sensorics

 

Extr.

Intr.

Extr.

Extr.

Extr.

Intr.

Extr.

Intr.

Functions symbols

Socionic types

The type name is formed either by the names of the two strongest functions and the tendency, or by the graphic symbol of two functions. In the second case the tendency is showed with the colour of the first function (black – extraverted, white – introverted). Type rationality or irrationality are showed with the order of functions. Rational types names start with a rational function (logics or ethics) and the irrational type names start with an irrational one (intuition or sensorics).

 

Division by Jung’s basis

Type name

Type symbol

 

Extraverts

 

Rational

Logics

Intuits

Logical-intuitive extravert

LIE

Sensorics

Logical-sensoric extravert

LSE

Ethics

 

Intuits

Ethical-intuitive extravert

EIE

Sensorics

Ethical-sensoric extravert

ESE

Irrational

Intuits

 

Logics

Intuitive-logical extravert

ILE

Ethics

Intuitive - ethical extravert

IEE

Sensorics

Logics

Sensoric-logical extravert

SLE

Ethics

Sensoric-ethical extravert

SEE

 

Introverts

 

Rational

 

Logics

Intuits

Logical-intuitive introvert

LII

 

Sensorics

Logical sensoric introvert

LSI

 

Ethics

Intuits

Ethical-intuitive introvert

ЭИИ

EII

Sensorics

Ethical-sensoric introvert

ESI

Irrational

Intuits

Logics

Intuitive-logical introvert

ILI

Ethics

Intuitive-ethical introvert

IEI

Sensorics

 

Logics

Sensoric-logical introvert

SLI

Ethics

Sensoric-ethical introvert

SEI

Socionic functions and aspects. Semantics.

A. Augustinavichuite made a conclusion that in the process of communication the information is transferred and processed with the help of functions. As the information is transferred, and also via words, the study of semantics, referring the words meaning to one or another socionic aspect, is very important.

Function

Name and symbol

Information aspect

Rational

 

Logics

Extraverted

Logics of actions

Visual dynamics of objects: information about actions, moves

Introverted

Logics of relations

Visual statics of relations: information about logical correlation

 

Ethics

 

Extraverted

Ethics of emotions

Hidden dynamics of objects: information about activation, stimulation

 

Introverted

Ethics of relations

Hidden statics: information about attraction - repulsion

 

 

Irrational

 

Intuition

Extraverted

Intuition of opportunities

Hidden statics of objects: information about contents, abilities

Introverted

Intuition of time

Hidden dynamics of relations: information about development, time correlation

 

 

Sensorics

Extraverted

Will sensorics

Visual statics of objects: information about appearances, strength

 

Introverted

Sensations sensorics

Visual dynamics of relations: information about state, physical from

 

А Model

Aushra Augustinavichuite has built the type models basing on Jung’s descriptions. In the model contruction “the below mentioned regularities are defined which could be difficult or at times even impossible to decipher in Jung’s text, if I were not sure that there was an exact structure behind it”, - Aushra wrote.

Creating the A model (later it was named after Aushra Augustinavichuite) Aushra took two necessary things into consideration:

  • In the psyche of each person all the 8 functions should be resent, because a person can this or other way process any kind of information.
  • Jung’s statement: the structure of the subconscious should reflect the structure of the conscious.

 

Structure of A model

A Model consists of 8 cells in which 8 functions are located. It is specific for every type.

Mental ring

basic

1

2

creative

Strong

EGO

Painful

4

3

role

Weak

SUPEREGO

Vital ring

referent

6

5

suggestive

SUPERID

limiting

7

8

realizing

Strong

ID

 

Basing on her great observation experience Aushra Augustinavichuite called the four upper functions the mental (“mind”) ring, that is conscious, the things very often thought and talked about.

The four lower functions got the name of the “vital” (“life”) ring, that is the things coming forward in vital circumstances without staying in the conscious most of the time.

It’s important to note: the A model of any type includes all the functions. That means that there is everything inside each of us. But something is represented in its strong variant, something – in its weak variant, something – in conscious, something – in subconscious. That means that when necessary, a person can show the features of any type. But some of them are easy to show and others are hard to show. That’s why it is easier to succeed in some activities and they are taken as the sphere of talents. And other spheres demand great effort.

Here we see that socionics does not put anyone into a cage, as people often misunderstand the typology. It just advises and recommends. One can take thechance to live easier or courageously overcome the difficulties – everyone decides for himself.

The way to read the psychological type description in the A model

As numerous research showed, the place of the function in the type model, is not casual. It shows how confidently and consciously the information on the according function is processed.

The strong functions of the mental ring – the first and the second – reflect the main in the core of the type, these are strong conscious functions of a personality. They represent the area of confidence. In the line of the first and the second functions a person chooses his life aims and means to reach them. According to them the most conscious and exact decisions are made and according to them one should choose his profession.

The first is the basic function, the basis of the personality and a person’s intellect. He adequately gets the information in it and can be an expert in the matters connected with this function.

The second one is the creative function. Here a person takes the information quickly and often generates it himself. This is the area of conscious, mature, effective creative work. Often a person takes the role of a critic here and subject the information to critical rethinking.

The weak functions of the mental ring are the third and the fourth ones. They usually serve for the adaptation of the person to the social norms, help to follow the expectations of the society. A person is never sure in the content of these functions as he is not sure in his accordance with the demands of the society.

The third function is the role, adaptive one. A person plays a role to adapt in unusual circumstances, tries to make a brilliant display in this function. This function is weak, can not work for a long time but helps to adjust himself to the situation, to people, to produce the first impression.

The fourth function is the painful point, the place of the least resistance. It is difficult to take the information on this function adequately, to work creatively here, that’s why it is better not to criticize a person on the matters connected with it. Even praise on this painful point is taken very hard. It is connected with the minimal traffic capacity of this information channel: information can not move freely, extra or vague information overloads, “sticks” there, making it work in the mode of yes/no, good/bad without slight nuances. The analogy with the physical pain can be drawn here: a hurt place is better not to touch – neither aiming at stroking nor to prick.

Everyone has such a place and it’s important to know it to defend oneself and one’s close people of extra trouble, whatever it can be: a wrong choice of profession, or steep demands of the people around, or wrong, not one’s own methods of conflict resolution. If a person suddenly gets soar up reacting to, in your opinion, some neutral information, try to think whether you could by chance touch his painful point. Strictly speaking, there is no neutral information at all: for somebody it could seem unpleasant, difficult to comprehend, and a person would not like to discuss it. If you need to build your relationships in an effective way – do not ignore the knowledge of a painful point.

The weak functions of the vital ring are the fifth and the sixth. Weak unconscious functions are pliable, are ruled by information from outside, are easily subjected to suggestion and programming. Information is perceived non-critically by these functions, with trust and is remembered without analysis. Here a person needs help but he also studies easily and effectively in these functions. A person gratefully takes the information and assistance by these functions. If you like to make a present to somebody – do it in the fifth and the sixth functions.

The fifth function is suggestive. “Entering gates” for information from the outer world for processing it later in one’s mind with the help of other functions.

A person can be “programmed” in the fifth function but everyone for his own programme: somebody yields to will pressure, the other – to the emotional one, the third falls for explanations, he can be talked into something by rules and so on. In the suggestive function the information is taken non-critically, with great interest, produces impression. It is difficult to tell desired things from the reality here.

The sixth function is referent. It is weak, unfit for creative work, but however studies in the spheres related to it goes so easily that a person can get good results in acquired skills. In this function a person is guided by an opinion of a referent group without opposing himself to it. He reacts to the tone of the talk. This function requires provided comfort as a person is unable to cope with situations in it.

The strong functions of the vital ring are the seventh and the eighth. The content of these functions are often thought over by a person. There is usually no creative work in them but decisions are made immediately, generated on the subconscious level without unnecessary words and thoughts. The zone of subconscious confidence of a person is determined by the strength and speed of these functions’ reaction. These functions are often involved in an extreme situation, where there is no time for long thinking or in routine everyday situations when there is no need in active thinking for a person is accustomed to it.

The seventh function is framing, limiting. This is the strongest function in every person. We can protect ourselves with the help of this function from any unwanted influences, to reduce undesirable activity of the people around us. But, on the other hand, a person can be easily limited on the seventh function: it disarms, leaves no means.

The eight function is bringing something to life in actual fact without words. It works almost all the time, making the background of all the person’s life. This function is very productive. It works very efficiently and surely, providing the person and his close circle with reliable results. There is no sense to strive for creative work here, but it is a reliable support for a person in any situation.

The example of the Intuitive-ethical extravert type ( (IEE)

 

 

1. Basic: intuition ofopportunities. IEE see potential opportunities of people and relations, perspectives of bringing to life projects and enterprises. They see a picture of interrelations on the whole and easily forecast their development. They know peoples’ capacities. Feel well their hidden motives and drawbacks. They are capable of forecasting even the behaviour of the people around them. Being carried away by an idea they readily publicize it becoming its active advocate. They are against prejudices.

2. Creative: ethics of relationships. They are sociable and emotional. Capable of finding the approach to almost every person, if necessary. Here their natural charm and diplomacy helps them much. They say compliments, try to do something pleasant to people. However they very quickly get disappointed in the objects of their sympathy. Wishing to be in good relations with everybody they are usually overloaded with unnecessary contacts. In the course of a conversation they can sometimes say too much. They condemn rude and ill-bred people. IEE will be good in a job connected with communication: journalism, psychology, ideology, advertisement, participation in exhibitions, client solicitation, evaluation of projects and personnel opportunities.

3. Role: willsensorics. Adapting to an unknown situation, IEE demonstrate exert themselves as strong personalities: they are beautiful and decisive enough. But they will hardly make everyday will effort if are not compelled by circumstances. They have good level of stress management, concentrate in extreme situations and can definitely repulse. They like beautiful things, strive for dressing originally.

4. Painful point: logicsof relations. They lose their way in the rules, instructions not connected with relations between people; they prefer somebody showing them the work of a certain device. They need tactful help in understanding of laws and taking formalities. They do not like regulations and strict rules limiting their independence. They oppose respect for rank .

The job of a programmer, lawyer, accountant – any work based on observation of formalities and instructions - is not good for them.

5. Suggestive: sensorics of sensations. IEE like to be cared about, when somebody cooks for them and organize comfort. They need much effort and concentration to organize their home life, to choose clothes according to the weather. They prefer originality and study practicality by their own experience.

6. Referent: logics of actions. They need their partner’s assistance in organizing the working place and working out a technology. It can be difficult for IEE to answer the question: “what should be done?” but if they have learnt the algorithm it will be observed exactly. At times they lack patience and thorough, they often leave unaccomplished things.

IEE like to get a comfortable beautiful thing, something tasty, good quality instrument, cosmetics, books on design as a present.

7. Limiting,framing: intuition of time. IEE are often late though by character they are fast, can contact much for a short time and visit many places. Being in an intense situation they confine

other people with the phrases like: “I am short of time now to think about that!” or by speeding up. They often fail to do all plans in time, tend to be distracted by other things.

8. Bringing to life, “in actual fact without words”:ethics of emotions. Their emotions are shown often, vividly, outright. People often find it difficult to resist the advertising made by IEE: their emotions charm people. They feel people’s mood, and can for example, understand the emotional state of a person by his voice. They usually need constant surge of new impressions. If fail in something, they suffer roughly but not for a long time. They can be exalted, enthusiastic.

In extreme situations they find the way very quickly, can inspire, encourage and comfort the people around.

Conclusions on the "A" model

  • Knowing the A model we can say much about a person, about the informational structure of his personality.
  • Informational structure is the basis, the skeleton of a personality. Besides that, there are other features common to all mankind: kindness, intellect, the culture level and other personal peculiarities which should be taken into consideration together with socionic data.
  • All the before mentioned does not limit the freedom of personal development but hints to the guiding line.
  • Knowing the A model we can give more correct and personalized consultations on the base of the person’s peculiarities and not stereotypes.
  • Knowing the person’s type it is possible to build more effective communication, that is to foresee – which themes can be touched upon in the talk and which ones should be avoided, what effect can be reached when touching upon one or another topic.

 

Intertype relations.

Aushra Augustinavichuite has not stopped at psychological type description. She made the next step in the direction of considering the information transfer and processing. Studying the information metabolism processes Aushra made the conclusion that information of one and the same kind is transferred and perceived by the same functions of the communication partners. For example, logical information is transferred by one of the partners with the help of logics and taken by the other also with the help of logics.

In the communication process information is transferred between identical elements.

That is one of the most important statements of socionics. It allows to follow and analyze the process of information transfer between people, find the source of distortion and the reasons for mutual misunderstanding.

Aushra Augustinavichuite considered the interaction of model elements of different types and made the conclusion that there are stable intertype relations between people’s types. They are determined not by a good or evil will but by the peculiarities in transferring and accepting information from a function to a function in the type models. This approach allowed using analytical methods in people’s relationships studies. Before this discovery there were attempts to analyze interpersonal relationships from the point of view of behaviour and sensations of every separate personality in these relations. Thus, all the recommendations came to the model of behaviour of a person in a situation without any attention to the ways of effective interaction with people of different psychological types.

Aushra was the first to discover that there is not only a personality structure but also the structure of relationships. This structure makes their objective core determined by the types of relations participants, independent of their aims, desires and skills.

Aushra Augustinavichuite writes: “The main reason why one person is pleasant and the other unpleasant and boring, is the way he expresses his thoughts, the words he uses, his mimics, gestures, intonations accompanying these words. People with unfit IM type very often hurt each other with their remarks or jokes, giving no information, no comfort but only irritate”. But they do not aim at hurting us personally, that is the way of information exchange inherent in their psychological type. For somebody else it is very pleasant and convenient. Now it became clear why one and the same situation of communication looks so differently for different people. It is interpreted through the type structure and everyone takes his own information from it.

Intertype relationships are the relationships formed between people as personality types.

Intertype interaction analysis shows the objective ground for the relations between people of different psychological types. This is the information structure of relationships. It is related to the peculiarities of information exchange and shows the tendencies in relations development. The above mentioned does not mean that the relations will inevitably develop this way, much depends on individual peculiarities, but the tendency on the whole can be forecast even for the people who are not acquainted with each other yet.

Aushra Augustinavichuite’s student V. Lyashkyavichus has worked out a table of intertype relationships, that is, relationships between personality types. This table is often and rightfully compared to Mendeleev’s table in chemistry. As Mendeleev’s table has made of description chemistry a science with exact rules and criteria, introduction of the intertype relationships table has brought objective criteria into the science of interpersonal relationships. As we can foretell in what reactions every element will be involved the same way on the base of the intertype relationships table we can forecast for every person what kind of people he will be easy to contact and what people will be hard to communicate. The more detailed information can be found in the book “The Intertype Relationships Theory” by A. Augustinavichuite. There she analyzed the process of information transfer from a function to a function and showed how it influences people’s relationships. Here we will give only a short table dividing the intertype relationships to groups of comfort.

 

Comfortable

Neutral

Tense

Identity (I)

Order (>O)

Supervision (S)

Duality (D)

Benefit (B)

Conflict (C)

Activation (A)

Illusionary (Il)

Superego (Se)

Mirror (M)

hold (H)

 

Semi - Dual ( Sd )

Quasi - Identity ( QI )

 

 

Look-a-like (LL)

 

 

The humanism of the new science is in the fact that at present there are reasons to state: people’s relationships can be objectively different (and not only in the perception of a specific person). There is no need to demand from every relations to be equally wonderful, not everything depends on the people’s will.

A.V. Boukalov, director of The International Socionics Institute stated: “The meaning of socionics is the transition from the view of a psyche structure and people relationships models as a sum of sum of separate facts and hypotheses to a well-ordered exact system”. “Where the old psychology of personality and social psychology saw chaos of people’s relationships, socionics has discovered distinct regularities pointing out the interaction of personality types”.

The use of socionics methods in psychological consulting

Socionic diagnostic and problem solving methods are a step forward in psychotherapy. We have “markers” to diagnose a problem which let us find the problem without making a person remember everything in detail, so these are non-intrusive methods. Besides, these methods can be used, for example, to estimate candidates for hiring, so that we can know beforehand what difficulties can arise in interaction with this or that person. Such difficulties can be caused by

- typological problems connected with weak functions and inherent from birth

- problems of not typological, but common to all mankind characteristics ignored earlier, at the certain stage of personal development. Socionics markers of such problems:

  • type distortion, presence of “a mask”;
  • some neutral and favourable intertype relationships cause irritation;
  • “fail” in one of the strong functions performance, extreme difficulties in the work of weak ones.

This information allows to locate the problem and give personal recommendations and ways of possible solution, way out.

The use of socionics methods in corporate consulting

Socionic analysis of the staff helps in the following kinds of assessment.

  •  
    •  
      • Assessment of the staff compatibility
  • participating in team-work;
  • located at the same room.
    •  
      • Calculation of psychological mood in the team and its estimation:
    • working team;
    • cosy gathering:
    • pedagogical group;
    • research team.
      • Staff assessment on the whole by the following parameters:
  • the team integral type.
  • the preferable activity type.
  • motivation.
  • areas of possible failures, overcharge, contra-indications.
  • communication styles, process or result orientation.
  • stress management of the staff.

Socionic approach to the personal features of a candidate in the hiring process allows receiving the following information.

  • Analysis of candidate’s capacities correspondence to the job specificity.
  • Preferable activity sphere for the employee.
  • Areas of possible overcharge, contra-indications.
  • Areas where creative activity can be expected.
  • Adaptation. Creating favourable environment for an employee. Stress management estimation.
  • Motivation . Activity stimulating . Values.
  • Career planning. Goal setting. Type of activities lines.
  • The style of managing the employee. Communication style. Information receptivity.

An extract from a diagnostic report from a hiring a candidate process.

Intuitive-ethical extravert (IEE)

Recommended jobs:

  • Journalist, reporter, reviewer, novelist, poet;
  • script writer/playwright
  • actor, clown, circus actor
  • musician/composer
  • art, artist, decorator, image maker;
  • public relations expert ;
  • advertising agent, specialist in work with advertisers, underwriter, booklet compiler;
  • Социолог; sociologist
  • psychologist, individual and family psychological consulting;
  • Служба знакомств; marriage service;
  • social sphere specialist;
  • spiritual teacher, priest, religious teaching;
  • career guidance consultant , recruitment ;
  • conflict solver ;
  • inventor;
  • HR and HR development expert;
  • specialist in conference arranging;
  • consultant in matters of personnel assistance, staff assistance programmes coordinator;
  • d - j , v - j ;
  • animator, caricaturist;
  • researcher (humanitarian sphere), art director;
  • pedagogics, pre-school teacher, a teacher of humanitarian disciplines.

How to manage the employee - IEE

  • He is better directed to work with people and not to the economic line;
  • it’s effective to set dead-lines and exact tasks;
  • do not make him work out new technologies and effective work methods;
  • show exact technologies and rules;
  • to arrange a comfortable working place, optimal working schedule without often overcharge;
  • to assist with documentation and other work results;
  • if possible, to let a free operating schedule.

There is no way to demand from IEE and is not worth expecting:

  • good performance of laborious work;
  • system in documentation keeping ;
  • high level of self-organization;
  • the skill of effective management of other people and responsibility delegation;
  • unemotional behaviour in conflict situations.

Special features of adaptation of IEE:

  • to give detailed instructions on his responsibilities;
  • comfort of his working place increases his produactivity;
  • explanations of business profit and expediency of his work can motivate him;
  • to help in organizing his work efficiently;
  • to explain the existing rules and technologies of the working process;
  • to arrange the sphere for his strong ethic function, to take into consideration his feelings and emotions;
  • to listen to his estimation of people and events on abstract aspects;
  • to respect his intuit’s right to manage his time and capacities on his own;
  • to help in solution of routine matters;
  • оказывать помощь в реализации его замыслов и идей ; to help in bringing his ideas and projects into life;
  • to draw attention to matters important here and now;
  • he better adapts in changing world, uses new opportunities;
  • to show other ways if the existing ones prove to be inefficient;
  • to introduce him to the most part of the employees;
  • while introducing the employee to give information about the responsibilities of the employee;
  • to motivate him by the uniqueness of his work and evaluation of his talents;
  • to explain his responsibilities (extravert);
  • to tell him about peculiarities of the company activities, focusing attention on the number of partners and clients, expansion of the company activities sphere;
  • to tell him about interconnection of different departments.

 

Literature:

  • C.G. Jung. Psychological Types. – Saint-Petersburg: “Yuventa” – M. “Progress – Univers” 1995.
  • A. Augustinavichuite. About the dual human nature. In the book: A/ Augustinavichuite. Socionics: book 1. Introduction. – M/: “AST”, S-Petersburg: “Terra Fantastica”, 1998.
  • A. Augustinavichuite. Information metabolism model. // Socionics, mentology and psychology of a personality”, № 1, 1995.
  • A. Augustinavichuite. Comments to Jung’s typology and introduction to information metabolism. //Socionics, mentology and psychology of a personality, № 2, 1995.
  • T.N. Prokofieva. Socionics. Algebra and geometry of human relationships. – M.: “Almaz”, 2005.
  • A.V. Boukalov. Socionics – new approach to understanding of a person and society. Socionics, mentology and psychology of a personality, № 1 , 1996.
  • V.D. Yermak. Explanatory dictionary of aspects of information flow. // Socionics, mentology and psychology of a personality, №№ 1 – 3, 1998.
  • A . Augustinavichuite . About symbols. Content of symbols used in socionics. //Socionics, mentology and psychology of a personality, № 2, 1998.
  • V.V. Goulenko. Management of a harmonious team. Socionics and socioanalysis for a director. – Novosibirsk: “RIPEL”, 1995.
  • I.D. Vaisband. Who am I? A little bit about socionics. //Znanie – sila, №№ 1, 3 – 10, 1992.